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Glosarium - Daftar Istilah

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A

Accepted (diterima/diakui)

Karakteristik yang diakui/diterima dalam suatu standar ras, meskipun karakteristik ini tidak selalu dicari dalam proses perkembangbiakan.

Active (aktif)

Menggambarkan anjing yang selalu siaga, waspada, bergerak dan berburu.

Affix (afiks)

Nama yang ditambahkan pada nama hewan yang menunjukkan dari pembiak mana hewan tersebut berasal.

Aggressive (agresif)

Kecenderungan untuk menyerang tanpa diprovokasi. Perilaku ini tidak diterima dalam semua standar.

Agouti

Rambut yang mempunyai daerah warna terang dan gelap. Gen agouti menghasilkan warna belang pada rambut.

Albino

Menggambarkan warna rambut putih karena kurangnya pigmen pada rambut.

Aquiline

Bentuk yang melengkung.

Arched loin (pinggang melengkung)

Pinggang (daerah antara tulang rusuk terakhir sampai tulang paha) yang membentuk kurva atau lengkungan. Merupakan karakteristik penting pada beberapa ras anjing. 

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B

Balanced (seimbang)

Proporsi tubuh anjing/kucing dengan rasio seimbang

Bare patch

Area tubuh anjing/kucing yang tidak/sedikit mengandung pigmen.

Barrel (tong)

Menggambarkan bentuk dada yang bulat seperti tong pada ras dengan bentuk tubuh Cobby sepertiPersia, dll

Barring

Strip warna yang berhubungan dengan pola warna tabby (tanda/marking)

Bib

Bagian tubuh berambut panjang, termasuk dagu bagian bawah dan dada (Ciri khas kucing Persia).

Bicolor

Pola warna pada kucing yang terdiri dari dua warna. Satu warna putih dan warna lainnya.

Blotched (Classic Tabby)

Istilah yang menggambarkan pola warna tabby klasik seperti pola marmer atau kayu

Blue (abu-abu)

Istilah yang diberikan pada warna rambut abu-abu mulai  dari abu-abu kebiruan sampai abu-abu terang. Semua kucing ras Chartreux mempunyai warna rambut blue.

Blue Cream

Warna blue (abu-abu) dan cream (krem) harus ada dengan proporsi yang relatif sama dan bercampur rata di seluruh tubuh seperti pada warna blue tortie. Kucing dengan warna blue tortie hampir selalu berjenis kelamin jantan.

Blue Point

Pada kucing Siam, Birman dan kucing-kucing berpola warna Colorpoint. Istilah yang menggambarkan warna abu-abu cerah pada daerah “point” (moncong, telinga, kaki dan ekor).

Break

Sudut tajam/celah yang terbentuk di daerah pertemuan antara hidung dan bagian bawah dahi.

Break atau Stop

Sudut  yang jelas antara hidung dan dahi (lihat juga Break atau Stop).

Breed (ras)

Subdivisi dari satu spesies yang terdiri dari kumpulan individu dengan karakteristik keturunan  yang sama. Karakter ini bisa berupa bentuk (morfologi) dan fisiologis. Satu individu disebut ras murni/galur murni (purebred) jika berasal dari orang tua dengan ras yang sama. Secara relatif, hanya ada sedikit ras kucing tapi dengan varietas yang sangat banyak. Perbedaan ras pada kucing bersifat morfologis (bentuk) terutama berhubungan dengan  lapisan rambut. Kadang ras baru muncul dari mutasi genetik (modifikasi tiba-tiba yang dapat diwariskan secara genetik, seperti pada American Curl, Sphynx, dll.). Namun, berbagai macam ras ini mungkin sudah punah bila tidak ada kerja keras pembiak (breeder) yang berdedikasi (seperti pada ras kucing Chartreux).

Brindling (bercak belang)

Warna putih, terang atau berpigmen sedikit pada rambut, atau pola warna. Bercak warna yang kontras dengan warna dasar lapisan rambut.

Brush (sikat) atau Breeches (celana)

Pada kucing berambut panjang atau sedang (semilonghair), rambut panjang dibagian belakang paha (menyerupai celana).

Brush (sikat) atau Plume

Lapisan rambut tebal  yang menutupi daerah ekor kucing berambut panjang. Tipe kucing Persia.

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C

Calico (tiga warna)

Istilah dari Amerika yang menggambarkan pola warna tortoiseshell (tortie) dan white (putih).

Cameo

Kucing dengan warna rambut abu-abu muda (silver) yang ujung helai rambutnya (tipping) berwarna merah-coklat atau krem.

Carbohydrates (karbohidrat)

Senyawa organik yang berperan dalam metabolism energi tubuh. Beberapa jenis karbohidrat masih berperan dalam pembentukan struktur atau kesehatan saluran pencernaan. Berdasarkan fungsinya dibagi menjadi dua kategori : 

  • karbohidrat sederhana seperti gula (glukosa, fruktosa, sakarosa, laktosa,dll) ditemukan pada buah, terigu, susu, gula dan produk gula.
  • karbohidrat kompleks seperti pati (sumber energi) dan serat makanan ( untuk kesehatan saluran pencernaan).

Champagne (sampanye)

Istilah dari Amerika untuk warna cokelat  pada kucing Burmese dan warna Lilac (cokelat muda) pada kucing Tonkinese.

Chinchilla

Tipe rambut yang berwarna putih perak dan  ujungnya (tipping) berwarna hitam. Ini adalah tingkat “tipping” paling rendah. Berasal dari Persia dengan marking hitam, merupakan persilangan antara Persia berwarna silver tabby dengan yang berwarna smoke. Bertubuh padat dengan kaki pendek, kepala bulat dengan “stop” yang jelas. Mata bulat berwana biru atau hijau. Rambut Chinchilla berukuran panjang dengan “undercoat” berwarna putih. “Tipping” hitam tersebar merata di daerah punggung, pinggang, kepala, telinga dan ekor, menutupi sekitar 1/8 panjang helai rambutnya. Hidung berwarna merah bata dengan pinggiran hidugn berwarna hitam. Pada Persia berwarna “silver shaded”, “tipping” hitam menutupi sekitar 1/3 panjang helai rambutnya.

Chocolat

Warna coklat muda kemerahan, banyak  terdapat pada ras oriental.

Cinnamon (kayu manis)

Warna rambut seperti madu atau cokelat kemerahan.

Classic Tabby atau Blotched Tabby

Istilah yang merujuk pada pola warna belang (tabby) yang menyerupai pola marmer atau kayu. Terdapat cincin warna pada ekor dan kaki. Tanda seperti huruf “M” pada dahi, paralel dengan belang di kepala. Pada bahu atau punggung terdapat pola melingkar seperti sasaran tembak (bull’s eye) dan tiga buah “pita” dari leher sampai ekor.

Coat (rambut/lapisan rambut)

Rambut mamalia, dilihat aspek eksternalnya seperti warna, kelembutan, ketebalan dan panjang..). Kucing  biasanya mempunyai lapisan rambut yang tebal, lembut dan fleksibel. Warnanya bisa, kuning atau abu-abu, terang atau gelap, kadang hitam, kadang loreng bergaris, bertotol-totol atau seperti pola marmer pada warna latar yang lebih muda.

Coat (rambut/lapisan rambut)

Istilah yang merujuk pada karakteristik lapisan rambut termasuk rambutnya (tekstur, panjang, dll), warna rambut, dan letak/pola daerah yang banyak warna dan sedikit warnanya.

Cobby

Bentuk/tipe tubuh yang pendek, padat berotot dengan dada dan panggul yang lebar dan bulat.

Colorpoint

Kucing dengan warna rambut badan terang dan gelap di beberapa bagian tubuh yang disebut  “points marking”. Bagian tubuh yang berwarna lebih gelap ini berupa moncong & wajah, telinga, kaki dan ekor. Semua kucing Siam memiliki pola warna colorpoint dengan berbagai variasi warna pada “point” - nya

Cream (krem)

Istilah yang menggambarkan warna rambut kuning pucat (shade), banyak pada ras Persia.

Curly-coated (rambut ikal)

Istilah yang menggambarkan rambut ikal pada kucing ras American Wirehair  dan Rex.

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D

Dietary fibre (serat makanan)

Komponen yang ditemukan pada tanaman, termasuk selulosa, hemiselulosa dan pectin. Meskipun komponen ini tidak dapat dicerna dan tidak memiliki manfaat nutrisi, sangat penting untuk menjaga kesehatan pencernaan dan transit usus yang normal, melindungi dinding usus dan membantu memerangi bakteri yang menyebabkan diare.

Dilution (pengenceran, warna yang lebih muda/cerah)

Warna yang lebih muda dari warna dasar red & black warna dilution–nya adalah lilac, cream

Disqualification (diskualifikasi)

Eliminasi kucing dari suatu perlombaan/kontes karena cacat serius. Contohnya rambut yang diwarnai atau dipotong atau jumlah jari abnormal, agresif, kotor , kelebihan berat badan, terlalu kurus, testis tidak sempurna (cryptorchid), dll…

Warna yang lebih muda dari warna dasar “red & black” warna dilution –nya adalah lilac, cream

Domed (kubah)

Menggambarkan  bentuk tengkorak  yang cembung, tulang kening (frontal)  yang menonjol. Contoh : tengkorak anjing Bedlington Terrier.

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E

Ear (telinga)

• Berukuran sedang dan berdiri tegak (European Shorthair, dll.);

• Berkuran besar (Devon Rex);

• Melipat ke belakang (American Curl);

• melipat ke depan, datar (Scottish Fold).

Energy (energi)

Supaya bisa berfungsi dengan baik, hewan membutuhkan energi yang terdapat dalam makanan (bisa bersumber dari hewan atau tumbuhan). Selama proses pencernaan, makanan dipecah menjadi nutrisi yang bisa diserap, dimetabolisme tubuh dan menghasilkan energi bagi tubuh.

Energy requirements (kebutuhan energi)

Jumlah energi yang berbeda diperlukan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan energi. Jumlahnya tergantung umur, status fisiologis (pertumbuhan, kebuntingan, laktasi/menyusui…), kegiatan fisik, ukuran hewan (ukuran anjing berbeda jauh) dan status steril.

Enzyme (enzim)

Molekul organik yang dapat mempercepat atau memacu reaksi kimia dalam tubuh.

Eyes (mata)

Mata tipe oriental : berbentuk seperti almond, agak miring

  • Kucing putih dengan mata berwarna  oranye (copper) tidak tuli
  • Kucing putih dengan warna mata heterokromatik (sebelah biru dan sebelah oranye) mempunyai kemungkinan tuli sebelah.
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F

Fault (cacat)

Ketidaksempurnaan yang signifikan yang berhubungan dengan standar ras dan  karakteristik spesifik.

Fawn (coklat kekuningan)

Warna kekuningan pada berbagai variasi warna hitam, lembut, warna pucat, versi dilution dari cinnamon, istilah lainnya pale buff, light sand atau pinkish-gray

• Fawn Point: warna coklat muda agak pink pada kaki.

• Fawn Tortie: bervariasi dari cinnamon hingga golden honey (keemasan) dan dari coklat kemerahan  sampai krem.

Feral (liar)

Istilah yang mendiskripsikan kucing domestik yang kembali menjadi kucing liar.

Flare (nyala api)

Pola garis berwarna putih pada kening yang kadang terus berlanjut hingga seluruh kepala

Foreign

Istilah yang menggambarkan bentuk tipe tubuh yang berkaki panjang, kucing elegan seperti pada Abyssinian, Siamese, dan Somali.

Frill atau Ruff (jumbai atau surai)

Sekumpulan rambut yang panjang dan padat di daerah sekitar leher 

Full Cheeks (pipi penuh)

Istilah yang menggambarkan pipi, seperti pada standar kucing ras Chartreux.

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G

Gauntlets (sarung tangan)

Pola warna dengan warna putih pada bagian cakar dari kucing dengan pola warna bicolor. Warna putih ini bisa mencapai bagian atas atau bawah tumit (hock). Disebut juga “boot”.

Ghost Markings (pola/tanda semu)

Pola tabby yang terlihat pada saat masih muda dan secara genetik memang memiliki pola warna tersebut. Pola tabby ini memudar dan hilang pada saat kucing mencapai usia dewasa.

Gloves (sarung tangan)

Warna putih di daerah belakang kaki pada kucing ras birman dan ragdoll

Gold atau Golden (emas atau keemasan)

Warna keemasan seperti buah aprikot. Termasuk warna yang jarang muncul:

  • Golden Shaded: warna latar belakang aprikot gelap tanpa warna abu-abu sedikit pun ujung helai rambut berwarna hitam (black tipping).
  • Golden Chinchilla: warna latar belakang aprikot lebih muda tanpa sedikitpun warna abu-abu. Hanya ujung helai rambut yang berwarna hitam, sekitar 1/8 dari total panjang helai rambut

Guard Hair (rambut pelindung)

Satu dari tiga tipe rambut pada lapisan rambut kucing. Rambut ini bertugas melindungi dan mempunyai ketebalan tertentu (lihat juga hair/rambut)

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H

Hair (rambut)

Ada beberapa jenis lapisan rambut/rambut (dikelompokkan berdasarkan pendapat penulis):

  • Lapisan luar (Outer coat  atau guard hair atau rambut primer): panjang, tebal, lurus, kaya pigmen, sedikit bulat diujungnya. Melindungi lapisan rambut banyak terdapat di tubuh bagian atas (leher, kepala, dada)
  • Awn hairs (juga untuk perlindungan): sedikit melengkung di bagian ujung dan ujungnya agak mengerucut.
  • lapisan bawah (Undercoat/underfur): tipis, bergelombang, padat, untuk melindungi dari suhu dingin. Lapisan rambut disebut lapisan ganda bila terdiri dari lapisan atas (outer coat /guard hairs)  dan bawah  (undercoat). Lapisan bawah sangat tebal pada kucing persia.  Pada kucing Sphynx, lapisan bawah merupakan satu-satunya penutup dan lapisan ini tidak terdapat pada  kucing Balinese: 
  • Rambut peraba (Tactile hair) disebut juga antena, terdapat pada kumis (vibrissae).

Hairless (botak, sedikit rambutnya)

Botak karena keturunan sangat jarang terjadi pada  kucing. Mexican hairless  adalah ras kucing yang dibuat oleh suku Aztec. Pada  tahun 1924 digambarkan sebagai berikut: kulit sedikit keriput, warna kebiruan di bagian punggung, daerah perut berwarna lebih muda. Kumis banyak dan warna putih pada bagian ekor dan warna hitam di ujung ekor. Pada tahun 1930, Létard mempelajari sepasang kucing berambut sedikit ini, menggambarkan mereka yag mempunyai kulit yang seperti daging, berkerut dan berwarna pucat. Ia membawa seekor kucing tanpa rambut dari India pada tahun 1930. Pada tahun 1935, Letard meneliti dua anak kucing jantan tanpa rambut dari ras siamese. Ia berhasi mendemostrasikan adanya gen autosom resesif  (hr) pada kejadian ini. Pada tahun 1966, di Kanada, menyilangkan anakan kucing tanpa rambut ini dan menghasilkan ras kucing Sphynx yang ada sekarang  (ras kucing Canadian Hairless).

Havana

Warna coklat seperti kastanye

Heterochromatic (heterokromatik)

Dua buah mata yang berbeda warnanya. Contohnya satu mata berwana kuning, mata lainnya berwana biru pada persia berwarna putih (lihat juga odd eye)

Himalayan

Nama lain dari persia dengan pola warna colorpoint. Persia dengan pola warna kucing siam. Kucing himalayan adalah kucing yang cantik dengan mata besar berwarna biru dan warna rambut yang kontras antara warna dasar dan warna “point”-nya

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I

Inbreeding (kawin sedarah)

Perkawinan  dari individu yang mempunyai hubungan keluarga. Perkawinan antar saudara dapat memunculkan cacat yang dibawa dari orang tua, tapi bisa juga mempercepat kestabilan karakterisitik dari suatu ras baru.

Ingredient (bahan baku)

Elemen (bahan baku makanan) dari suatu resep. Bahan baku ini merupakan sumber dari beberapa nutrien, dapat ditingkatkan dengan menghilangkan berbagai komponen yang tidak mempunyai nilai/manfaat nutrisi.

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J

K

Kilocalorie (kilo kalori/kkal)

Satuan energi yang digunakan untuk menghitung kebutuhan energi hewan dan kepadatan energi dalam makanan. 1 kilo kalori = 1000 kalori = 4.18 kilo joule.

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L

Laces

A white area running from the foot to the hocks, particularly in Birmans and Snowshoes (“boots” on the back of the leg, to the hock) (see Gauntlets, Gloves).

Lavender or Lilac

A light pinkish-buff coat color with no markings.

Length, texture

• Short hair (outer coat): 4.5 cm (European Shorthair, Chartreux),

• Long hair (outer coat): 15 to 20 cm (Persian),

• Diameter of guard hair (Persian):40 to 80 microns,

• Diameter of down hair (Persian):10 to 35 microns.

Lilac

A light pinkish-buff color (see Lavender). Rare color. Taupe gray or even, extremely light pinkish-buff with no ghost markings. Platinum (Burmese and Tonkinese). Lilac Persians are very light in color on the entire belly, frill, and tail. Lilac Cream: a combination of cream and lilac. Lilac Point: the extremities are pinkishbuff, the body varies from off-white to extremely light antique ivory, with eyes as dark as possible.

Lipids

The main component of fat, lipids have a high energy content in a small volume (fats, oils). They also play a functional role in the body by means of the vitamins dissolved in them (vitamins A, D, E and K) and the presence of essential life-sustaining lipid molecules (essential fatty acids).

Lynx Point or Tabby Point

Said of a cat with a colored coat in which the extremities (or points: mask, tail, legs, and ears) have tabby markings (Siamese, Himalayan ...).

Lynx Tip

A tuft of hair at the tip of the ear, a characteristic sought in the Maine Coon, Norwegian Forest Cat, and Himalayan, and retracted for the Persian and Exotic.

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M

Mackerel Markings

A tiger tabby design. Mackerel tabby: the legs and tail have thin, tight rings, as does the necklace. The “M” on the forehead and the lines on the skull, neck, and spine are continuous, tight, and parallel. The flanks, shoulders, and thighs have either striping in a fish bone pattern or thin, even, parallel lines. The belly is spotted.

Maltesing

A dilution of pigment in the hair follicle.

Marble

A term used exclusively for the Bengal, a breed exhibiting a classic tabby pattern with rosettes on the flanks, markings typical of wild cats. The marbled cat, a wild cat from Asia, has marbling on the back and flanks and a lighter line on the belly marked with back spots.

Marking

A tabby design or striping, called “ghost markings” when it fades with age or when the cat exhibits tabby markings but is genetically selfcolored. A clearly outlined pattern on a more or less even background. The pattern is created by a group of darker or lighter hairs that form stripes, marbling, or spotting, patches on the extremities, a mask on the head, or cuffs on the feet.

Mascara Lines

Dark lines connecting to the eyes.

Mask

The darker area of the face which stops between the ears and covers the nose, whisker pads, chin, and area around the eyes. Darker parts of the face in the Siamese and Birman.

Metabolism

All the biochemical processes occuring in a living being so that it may develop and survive. Some reactions make construction processes possible by means of synthesis (anabolism), others are degradation or breakdown processes (catabolism).

Mi-Ke

Tortoiseshell and white (calico) variety of the Japanese Bobtail. Tortoiseshell, light reddishbrown, dark reddish brown, and black on a white background.

Micronutrients

Nutrients present in tiny amounts in food (vitamins, trace elements).

Minerals

Ina food, everything organic matter or water consists of rock salt. Collectively they are also referred to as ash. According to their level of incorporation in food, one calls them "macronutrients" (eg: calcium and phosphorus) or "trace elements" (iron, copper, zinc...).

Mink

The result of the influence of point and sepia genes on the self gene. The cat has darker col-oring on the points and back and lighter coloring on the body, especially the underparts, while Colorpoints have coloring only on the extremities. The eyes are blue-green, as in the Tonkinese.

Examples:

  • Chocolate Mink: points resembling the Chocolate Point Siamese, light goldenbrown body.
  • Blue Mink: points resembling the Blue Point Siamese, very light steel blue body.
  • Lilac Mink: points resembling the Lilac Point Siamese, very light rice flour or pinkish-buff body.

Mittens

White fur on the forepaws, as in the Ragdoll.

Morphological Types

Terms corresponding to body type. Three different morphological types can be distinguished:

• Medium-limbed or medium type. Balanced, harmonious proportions. Intermediate in size. Straight profile, head (face) is round or trapezoid-shaped; slight stop, medium-sized nose, ears, and eyes. Example: European Shorthair, British Shorthair, Chartreux;

• Long-limbed or Oriental type. Slender body, fine bone and muscle structure, long legs, small feet. Head fairly triangular and elongated, domed profile, no stop. Almond-shaped eyes. Large, pointed ears. Long tail. Examples: Siamese, Abyssinian, Egyptian Mau;

• Short-limbed or stocky type. Massive silhouette, compact muscle structure. Heavy bone structure. Short legs. Wide head is squareshaped. Concave profile, domed forehead, pronounced stop, short, wide nose, angular chin, full cheeks. Round eyes. Wide, short, wellspaced ears. Short, well-furnished tail. A longhaired coat enhances the short-limbed type by making the legs appear shorter. Example: Persian.

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N

Necklace

Continuous or broken stripes on the upper part of the chest in tabby varieties.

Non agouti

A solid-colored coat. (agouti gene A is what produces stripes in the coat, always accompanied by a design called a tabby pattern). Nonagouti gene aa produces self colors (uniform over the entire length of the hair), except in reddish-brown, cream, and orange varieties. All cats, for example, those with reddish-brown or cream coats, exhibit the tabby pattern to a certain extent.

Nose Leather

The hairless tip of the nose and nostrils.

Nutrients

Simple mineral elements or organic molecules that are the components of food, each one of them being essential to the functioning of the body. According to the condition of the latter, preparing a balanced food involves making a complexe jigsaw, each piece of which is a different nutrient. Nutrients are divided into families: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, without forgetting the most important one of all : water. Nutrients are prime elements, just like there are prime numbers, from which all conceptions of a balanced diet must derive.

Nutrition

All the phenomena by which the body breaks down food to absorb and use it for the purpose of development and survival in a given environment. Nutritional balance in food:

  • provides the energy constantly required by the body,
  • provides the materials needed to permanently build and renew organs,
  • provides small amounts of those substances that are essential to the smooth functioning of the biological phenomena permanently occurring in the cells.
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O

Odd-Eyed

A cat with one blue eye and one copper eye, for example. Only possible in cats with a white coat or with a colored coat with white markings (see Heterochromatic).

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P

Particolored

A coat consisting of two or more colors, such as tortoiseshell and white.

Patched Tabby

A tabby coat with superimposed tortoiseshell coloring. Also called tortie tabby (see Torbie).

Pattern

A design characterizing the coat.

Pewter

The coat color of the Silver Shaded cat with orange or copper-colored eyes.

Point Score

A numbered rating of the various elements involved in evaluating a cat. A perfect score is 100. Each region of the body is assigned a number of points based on significance, in order to achieve an accurate rating. Point scores vary by breed (see point score table in Cat Fancy section).

Points

Colored extremities that are darker than the body, including the mask, ears, legs, and tail. A characteristic of the Siamese.

• Colorpoint: colored at the extremities. The contrast is variable in density and less pronounced in the Burmese pattern than in the Siamese pattern.

Protids

Protids or proteins are the only substances in the body that contain sulphur. They provide life-essential elements: amino acids, which are the building blocks of the cells that make up the body. They have a number of vital functions allied to growth, reproduction and immunity to name but three. Proteins are also required to manufacture the enzymes that trigger chemical reactions in the body.

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Q

R

Rex

A term describing animals with a wavy, curly coat and usually curly whiskers. Actually, this term encompasses several different mutations, both in terms of genotype and phenotype. The rex trait is always a monogenetic, autosomal trait which is usually recessive. Only the Selkirk Rex and Dutch Rex traits are dominant.

Roman

Said of a slightly rounded profile, especially in the Birman; the profile is arched in the Cornish Rex.

Ruddy

Term used in the United States to describe the original color of Abyssinians and Somalis. “Usual” is the British equivalent.

Rumpy

A Manx with no tail. The “rumpy riser” has one to three coccygeal vertebrae covered by a tuft of hair.

Rustiness

Traces of reddish hairs in the coat of a black cat.

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S

Sable

Atermused in theUnited States to describe the brown Burmese, the darkest form of the breed.

Sable

A chestnut-colored (brown, sable) variety of Burmese with a dark coat and a brown nose and pads. The Burmese, which arrived in France in 1956, was nicknamed “sable cat” due to its coat coloring.

Scarab Marking

A marking in the form of an “M” on the forehead of many foreign-type spotted tabbies. This marking is complex enough in design to evoke an ancient Egyptian scarab beetle. Also called “frown lines.”

Seal

A dark brown coat color in the black range.

Seal Point

A coat in which the extremities are the darkest brown possible. The body ranges from eggshell white to golden. This is the best known and most appreciated Siamese color.

Self

A solid-colored coat with no white.

Semi-cobby

Having a slightly longer and leaner silhouette than the cobby.

Semi-foreign

Having a fairly long-limbed silhouette but a relatively heavy bone structure.

Sepia

This color, specific essentially to the Burmese, slightly tones down the corresponding base color, making it lighter.

Shaded

The tone of the coat varies gradually, as in theBurmese.

Shading, Shaded

A “shaded” coat falls between chinchilla and smoke (in which most of the hair is colored), with tipping covering approximately 1/3 the length of the hair and the rest white or light-colored. Shading may appear as darker coloring only on certain areas of the coat, as the hips in Colorpoints (Siamese, Himalayan, Birman). The tone of the coat varies gradually, as in the Burmese.

Shell

In this effect, the tipping (darker marking at the hair tip) covers approximately 1/8 the length of the hair. A “shell” cat is lighter than a “shaded” cat.

Silvering

A silvery coat. A coat with colored tipping on a white background. If the term is not preceded by another color, such as blue silver, it indicates black tipping. In the Silver Egyptian Mau, the black spotting contrasts with a very pale silver background. In the Somali, silver black (black bands, white bands and underparts) and silver blue (blue bands, white bands and underparts) varieties are recognized. In Silver Tabbies, the affected hairs are confined to lighter areas placed between darker markings.

Smoke

A coat in which most of each hair is colored, with the base being white or light-colored.

• 50 to 80% of the length of each hair is colored, he rest being silver, as seen mainly in the Persian.

Smoke

The effect when color covers 50 to 80% of the length of the hair (black, blue, red, cream, etc.). The rest of the hair, down to the root, is a luminous, silvery white. A lovely Smoke Persian must appear to be a solid color. If the cat is black, for example, the white background should be visible only when the cat is moving or if the hair is parted.

Smoke Cameo

A smoke coat in which the pigmentation is orange.

Sorrel

Chocolate ticked coloring in the Abyssinian and Somali.

Spectacles

A lighter area encircling the eyes in a colored mask (Siamese, Birman, Himalayan).

Spotted

“Found only in the European Shorthair, this pattern corresponds to clear, non-overlapping spots that are oval, round, or rosette-shaped and vary in color or said to be “in keeping with the background color, “in the standard” (Chaudieu, 1974). Spotted tabby: Legs and tail ringed with fairly thin, tight markings. The spine may be covered either with parallel lines or spots arranged in a line. The flanks, shoulders, and thighs have spots of varying sizes and shapes, preferably round and even (like those of the ocelot or panther). In all cases, the spots must be well-separated and distinct. The belly is spotted.

Spotted (Spot)

Said of a coat having round, crisp, distinct spots. Spotted tabby: spotted or patched tabby coat consisting of spots on an agouti background.

Standard

The set of characteristics of the different parts of the body (head, ears, eyes, legs, tail, etc.) and coat (texture and length of hair, coloring, etc.) that an individual of a specific breed must exhibit.

Stocky

Having a compact body shape, as the British Shorthair.

Stop

The indentation between the forehead and nose; the separation between the top of the skull and the face. Depending on breed, the stop may be slight (British Shorthair), very pronounced (Persian), or absent (Oriental). A stop is less visible than a break.

Striping

On the tabby, distinct markings resembling fish bones.

Stumpy

Term describing a Manx cat with a tail 1 to 10 cm long and consisting of one to three caudal vertebrae, often with bone defects (“knotted tail”).

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Tabby

Tabby cats have a coat with striping, marbling, or dark spots on a light background, including:

• Blotched (or classic or marbled) tabby: wide, dark stripes curving over the flanks, butterfly

wings on the shoulders, three large stripes running

from the withers to the base of the tail.

•Mackerel (or tiger) tabby: thin, either continuous or broken stripes perpendicular to the spine.

• Spotted (or patched) tabby: round, even, distinct spots on a light background.

• Ticked tabby (Abyssinian coat): striping is almost absent and confined to the legs, necklace, or tail. Tabbies exist in all colors.

Tabby Point or Lynx Point

Said of a cat with a colored coat in which the extremities (or points: mask, tail, legs, and ears) have tabby markings (Siamese, Himalayan ...).

Tail

The domestic cat has a long tail (slightly shorter in the Persian, may be totally absent in the Manx) which is often abundantly furnished and naturally curves backward. The photos illustrate tail variations based on breed. Several Asian breeds have short tails or caudal defects. Corkscrew or pompom tail (Japanese Bobtail).

Ticking

Stripes of color on a single hair. Each hair has dark bands alternating with light bands. Found in ticked tabby varieties. The Abyssinian has a ticked coat.

Tiger

Tiger or mackerel designs are dark markings on short or long hair that appear as:

• Rings on the legs, tail, and chest.

• A single stripe along the spine.

• Concentric, transversal stripes on the back, running from the spine to the belly. The wild cat sports this attire, which helps it blend in with its natural surroundings.

Tipped, Tipping

Only the tip of the hair is colored. The following distinctions are made, depending on the ratio of the dark part to the total length:

• Chinchilla Persian: tipping on 1/8 the length of the hair;

• Shaded Persian: tipping on 1/3 the length of the hair;

• Smoke Persian: tipping on 2/3 the hair.

Torbie

A female with both tortoiseshell (tortie) markings and tabby markings.

Tortie

A nickname for tortoiseshell, or a combination of red and black or cream and blue. In principle this coloring exists only in females. In a Tortie Point, the coloring covers the points and must be evenly mixed.

Tortoiseshell

A coat with a combination of red and black or cream and blue. In principle, this combination exists only in females. Black and orange coat color. Also exists in dilute versions. A term describing a coat in which two colors are more or less distinctly intermingled in an even reddish-brown, cream, or apricot color. The color pairs include black, chocolate, or cinnamon with reddish-brown or lilac; fawn with cream ; and caramel with apricot.

Tortoiseshell and White

A cat with tortoiseshell coloring and white markings.

Tortoiseshell or Tortie

A coat with a combination of red and black or cream and blue. In principle, this combination exists only in females. Black and orange coat color. Also exists in dilute versions. A term describing a coat in which two colors are more or less distinctly intermingled in an even reddish-brown, cream, or apricot color. The color pairs include black, chocolate, or cinnamon with reddish-brown or lilac; fawn with cream ; and caramel with apricot.

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Undercoat

Fine, downy hair lying close to the body beneath the guard hairs and providing good insulation. The density depends on the breed.

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Van

American van pattern: particolor variety in which the entire body is white and only the top of the head and tail are colored. European van pattern: particolor variety in which the entire body is white except for a small colored patch, and the head head and tail are colored.

Variation

Any modification affecting living beings, based on a type considered “normal” or average. In cats, variations involve head shape (round in the European Shorthair, triangular in the Siamese), tail length (ranging from long in some breeds to absent in theManx), coat markings (tabby, etc.), and coat length and color.

Variety

A variety is a subgroup of animals of a breed that selective breeding has rendered distinct from other animals of the breed. In cats, varieties in coat color are the most common (see Persian in the breed section, for example).

Vitamin

A vitamin is on organic substance needed by the body, with no energy value of its own, and that the animal cannot synthesize in sufficient amounts to function normally. Therefore an adequate daily supply of it must be provided by the diet.

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Wedge-shaped (bentuk baji/segitiga)

Istilah yang menggambarkan bentuk kepala yang menyerupai segitiga. Terlihat dengan cara menarik garis imajiner dari bagian luar telinga hingga pinggir moncong, tengkorak datar (tidak bulat seperti Persia), hidung mancung.

Whip Tail (ekor cambuk)

Menggambarkan ekor yang panjang, tipis dan fleksibel, dari pangkal sampai ujung, seperti pada kucing Siam, Sphynx dan Oriental.

Whisker Pad (bantalan kumis)

Daerah di bagian atas bibir atas, tempat tumbuhnya kumis. Bagian moncong yang tertutup daging/otot, terdapat pada kedua sisi moncong.

White (putih)

Kucing berambut putih dengan iris mata berwarna biru, hampir selalu tuli (Létard, 1925).

Whole (lengkap)

Kucing atau anjing yang tidak dikebiri atau dioperasi rahim dan indung telurnya (disteril).

Wooly

Menggambarkan lapisan dasar rambut (undercoat) pada daerah perut, paha atau ekor pada Persia. Lapisan rambut  tebal menyerupai wool seperti yang terdapat pada kucing Chartreux.

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Y

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